Professor P. G. (Gerry) McKenna

Articles / Publications
headline title search
2015. The oversight of HE within the proposed Northern Ireland Department for the Economy.
- “Universities and higher education are worthwhile in their own right. They transform the lives of individuals and shape our society for the better...
2015. The oversight of HE within the proposed Northern Ireland Department for the Economy. - “Universities and higher education are worthwhile in their own right. They transform the lives of individuals and shape our society for the better
2008. It's all right for some.
Professor Gerry McKenna The current debate on the use of citations for determining future research funding following the Research Excellence Framework (REF) is sad to witness. It raises simultaneously all that is good and, regrettably, deficient with academic thinking and analysis...
2008. It's all right for some. Professor Gerry McKenna The current debate on the use of citations for determining future research funding following the Research Excellence Framework (REF) is sad to witness. It raises simultaneously all that is good and, regrettably, deficient with academic thinking and analysis
2004. The Management Challenges for a 21st Century University
Reflections of a Vice-Chancellor and President (Booklet published by the University of Ulster)...
2004. The Management Challenges for a 21st Century University Reflections of a Vice-Chancellor and President (Booklet published by the University of Ulster)
2018. RIA: Briefing on NI Budgetary Outlook, 2018-2020.
The Royal Irish Academy North-South Standing Committee has published a report on the Northern Ireland Bugetary Outlook (2018-2020) discussion paper. See links: https://www...
2018. RIA: Briefing on NI Budgetary Outlook, 2018-2020. The Royal Irish Academy North-South Standing Committee has published a report on the Northern Ireland Bugetary Outlook (2018-2020) discussion paper. See links: https://www
2007. Knowledge-based economy requires high-tech input.
See link below: https://www.researchgate...
2007. Knowledge-based economy requires high-tech input. See link below: https://www.researchgate
2017. RIA Brexit NI Taskforce. Higher Educationand Research in Northern Ireland Post-Brexit.
See links: https://www.researchgate...
2017. RIA Brexit NI Taskforce. Higher Educationand Research in Northern Ireland Post-Brexit. See links: https://www.researchgate
2016. Biography of Paddy Mullins
Mullins, Patrick (‘Paddy’) (1919–2010) P Gerry McKenna MRIA Paddy Mullins, racehorse trainer, was born on 28 January 1919 in the townland of Old Grange near Graiguenamanagh, Co. Kilkenny...
2016. Biography of Paddy Mullins Mullins, Patrick (‘Paddy’) (1919–2010) P Gerry McKenna MRIA Paddy Mullins, racehorse trainer, was born on 28 January 1919 in the townland of Old Grange near Graiguenamanagh, Co. Kilkenny
2016. EU Referendum: Northern Ireland Should Vote for Opportunity and Against Isolation
Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA The debate on the forthcoming EU Referendum has been driven as much by ideology as economic reality. Voters should reflect not only on personal ‘comfort zone’ preferences but also on future opportunities for our children and grandchildren...
2016. EU Referendum: Northern Ireland Should Vote for Opportunity and Against Isolation Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA The debate on the forthcoming EU Referendum has been driven as much by ideology as economic reality. Voters should reflect not only on personal ‘comfort zone’ preferences but also on future opportunities for our children and grandchildren
2016. Youth and Academia want to Remain in EU
Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA The debate on the forthcoming EU Referendum has been driven as much by ideology as economic reality. Voters should reflect carefully on future opportunities for their children and grandchildren...
2016. Youth and Academia want to Remain in EU Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA The debate on the forthcoming EU Referendum has been driven as much by ideology as economic reality. Voters should reflect carefully on future opportunities for their children and grandchildren
2016. Royal Irish Academy Advice Paper on the Sustainability of the Northern Ireland Higher Education Sector
Key Points The Northern Ireland higher education system is experiencing a period of unprecedented underfunding which threatens the planned economic development of Northern Ireland as envisaged in the 2015 Stormont Agreement ‘A Fresh Start’. Northern Ireland (NI) is especially dependent on the economic and social benefits of a strong higher education and research system particularly as the NI Executive attempts to transform the economy to develop a knowledge-based industrial sector and to encourage foreign direct investment (FDI) through a planned reduction in the corporation tax rate...
2016. Royal Irish Academy Advice Paper on the Sustainability of the Northern Ireland Higher Education Sector Key Points The Northern Ireland higher education system is experiencing a period of unprecedented underfunding which threatens the planned economic development of Northern Ireland as envisaged in the 2015 Stormont Agreement ‘A Fresh Start’. Northern Ireland (NI) is especially dependent on the economic and social benefits of a strong higher education and research system particularly as the NI Executive attempts to transform the economy to develop a knowledge-based industrial sector and to encourage foreign direct investment (FDI) through a planned reduction in the corporation tax rate
2015. Amyan Macfadyen Obituary
Obituary: Professor Amyan Macfadyen MRIA (1920-2015) Ecologist and Academic   Amyan Macfadyen was one of the most influential figures in ecology research and environmental education during the latter half of the 20th century.  A soil ecologist, he carried out pioneering work on soil ecosystems using methods and approaches which did much to legitimise ecology as a major, though highly complex, scientific discipline...
2015. Amyan Macfadyen Obituary Obituary: Professor Amyan Macfadyen MRIA (1920-2015) Ecologist and Academic   Amyan Macfadyen was one of the most influential figures in ecology research and environmental education during the latter half of the 20th century.  A soil ecologist, he carried out pioneering work on soil ecosystems using methods and approaches which did much to legitimise ecology as a major, though highly complex, scientific discipline
2015. Biography of Vincent O'Brien
O’Brien, Michael Vincent (1917-2009) P. Gerry McKenna MRIA Michael Vincent O’Brien, known by his middle name Vincent, or ´MV´, is generally regarded to have been the greatest racehorse trainer of the 20th century...
2015. Biography of Vincent O'Brien O’Brien, Michael Vincent (1917-2009) P. Gerry McKenna MRIA Michael Vincent O’Brien, known by his middle name Vincent, or ´MV´, is generally regarded to have been the greatest racehorse trainer of the 20th century
1995. Vincent O'Brien: Encomium for Honorary Degree
University of Ulster Honorary Degree of Doctor of ScienceMICHAEL VINCENT O´BRIENPresentation Address byProfessor P G (Gerry) McKenna BSc PhD CBiol FIBiol FIBMS4th July 1995   Chancellor, It has been said, and with some justification, that the development of the thoroughbred horse has been largely dependent upon a piece of wood - the winning post of the Epsom Derby. However, as we move towards the end of the 20th Century it is clear that one uniquely gifted Irishman has left an indelible and unparalleled imprint on the bloodstock industry which will influence its evolution for decades to come...
1995. Vincent O'Brien: Encomium for Honorary Degree University of Ulster Honorary Degree of Doctor of ScienceMICHAEL VINCENT O´BRIENPresentation Address byProfessor P G (Gerry) McKenna BSc PhD CBiol FIBiol FIBMS4th July 1995   Chancellor, It has been said, and with some justification, that the development of the thoroughbred horse has been largely dependent upon a piece of wood - the winning post of the Epsom Derby. However, as we move towards the end of the 20th Century it is clear that one uniquely gifted Irishman has left an indelible and unparalleled imprint on the bloodstock industry which will influence its evolution for decades to come
2014. Short Obituary: Professor Norman Gibson CBE MRIA
Norman Gibson was a major figure in the higher education and socio-political landscape of Northern Ireland for a period of over 30 years. He will be remembered for his courage, integrity and independence of mind...
2014. Short Obituary: Professor Norman Gibson CBE MRIA Norman Gibson was a major figure in the higher education and socio-political landscape of Northern Ireland for a period of over 30 years. He will be remembered for his courage, integrity and independence of mind
2014. Obituary: Professor Norman Gibson CBE MRIA
Norman Gibson was a major figure in the higher education and socio-political landscape of Northern Ireland for a period of over 30 years; spanning its troubled and transformational years from the 1960s to the 1990s. He will be remembered for his courage, integrity and independence of mind...
2014. Obituary: Professor Norman Gibson CBE MRIA Norman Gibson was a major figure in the higher education and socio-political landscape of Northern Ireland for a period of over 30 years; spanning its troubled and transformational years from the 1960s to the 1990s. He will be remembered for his courage, integrity and independence of mind
2014. Religious and Political Conflict – the Story of Northern Ireland
Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA Ancient Ireland Ireland has had a long history of bloody conflicts as a result of invasions and internal divisions. The first major Irish inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who came after 8,000 BC following the end of the ‘ice age’...
2014. Religious and Political Conflict – the Story of Northern Ireland Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA Ancient Ireland Ireland has had a long history of bloody conflicts as a result of invasions and internal divisions. The first major Irish inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who came after 8,000 BC following the end of the ‘ice age’
2013. University of Ulster - The Innovation Phase
Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA Following its creation in 1984 through the merger of the New University of Ulster and the Ulster Polytechnic, the University of Ulster (UU) went through a necessary ‘establishment phase’. This involved a period of consolidation at its Jordanstown, Coleraine and Belfast campuses, allowing for its different traditions and practices to coalesce, and was accompanied by a determined effort to grow the previously neglected Magee campus...
2013. University of Ulster - The Innovation Phase Professor Gerry McKenna MRIA Following its creation in 1984 through the merger of the New University of Ulster and the Ulster Polytechnic, the University of Ulster (UU) went through a necessary ‘establishment phase’. This involved a period of consolidation at its Jordanstown, Coleraine and Belfast campuses, allowing for its different traditions and practices to coalesce, and was accompanied by a determined effort to grow the previously neglected Magee campus
2013. Obituary: Professor Robert (Bob) Welch MRIA
Obituary: Robert Anthony (Bob) Welch MRIA (1947-2013) Professor Bob Welch MRIA was a distinguished scholar, poet, novelist and playwright, as well as being a transformative faculty dean and research group leader. Born in Cork in 1947, Bob Welch studied English and Irish for his first degree at University College Cork before taking a Masters degree in literature under Sean Lucy...
2013. Obituary: Professor Robert (Bob) Welch MRIA Obituary: Robert Anthony (Bob) Welch MRIA (1947-2013) Professor Bob Welch MRIA was a distinguished scholar, poet, novelist and playwright, as well as being a transformative faculty dean and research group leader. Born in Cork in 1947, Bob Welch studied English and Irish for his first degree at University College Cork before taking a Masters degree in literature under Sean Lucy
2013. Tribute to Professor Bob Welch MRIA
Robert Anthony (Bob) Welch MRIA (1947-2013) Bob Welch enriched the lives of a great many people; socially, intellectually, professionally, and spiritually. This enrichment was based on the continuous development, and exploitation, of the extraordinary gifts he possessed; creativity, curiosity, love of literature, a sense of history and heritage, and an uncommon facility with words...
2013. Tribute to Professor Bob Welch MRIA Robert Anthony (Bob) Welch MRIA (1947-2013) Bob Welch enriched the lives of a great many people; socially, intellectually, professionally, and spiritually. This enrichment was based on the continuous development, and exploitation, of the extraordinary gifts he possessed; creativity, curiosity, love of literature, a sense of history and heritage, and an uncommon facility with words
2007. Ulster - How Biomedical Sciences transfomed a university
ULSTER – HOW BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES TRANSFORMED A UNIVERSITY Professor Gerry McKenna FIBMS, CSci As an innovation powerhouse in teaching and research, biomedical sciences at Ulster has demonstrated the standards and influence that a truly outstanding department can achieve and also the synergies that can exist between its various strands of activity. Biomedical Sciences developed, as a higher education degree level academic discipline, in the late 1970’s with honours degree programmes being introduced at Bradford, Portsmouth and Cardiff, followed by Ulster in 1980...
2007. Ulster - How Biomedical Sciences transfomed a university ULSTER – HOW BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES TRANSFORMED A UNIVERSITY Professor Gerry McKenna FIBMS, CSci As an innovation powerhouse in teaching and research, biomedical sciences at Ulster has demonstrated the standards and influence that a truly outstanding department can achieve and also the synergies that can exist between its various strands of activity. Biomedical Sciences developed, as a higher education degree level academic discipline, in the late 1970’s with honours degree programmes being introduced at Bradford, Portsmouth and Cardiff, followed by Ulster in 1980
2009. The Triple Crown – the Dream is Not Over!
Professor Gerry McKenna This year has seen, like most others for the past twenty or more years, the ritual denigration by some commentators of the Doncaster  St Leger and the perceived anachronism represented by the English ‘Triple Crown’. The argument goes along the lines that: the St Leger no longer attracts the top middle distance horses, breeders shun St Leger winners and it is unreasonable , in the modern day, to expect any three year old thoroughbred to excel over the range of distances involved (1 to 1 ¾ miles) in winning the Triple Crown...
2009. The Triple Crown – the Dream is Not Over! Professor Gerry McKenna This year has seen, like most others for the past twenty or more years, the ritual denigration by some commentators of the Doncaster  St Leger and the perceived anachronism represented by the English ‘Triple Crown’. The argument goes along the lines that: the St Leger no longer attracts the top middle distance horses, breeders shun St Leger winners and it is unreasonable , in the modern day, to expect any three year old thoroughbred to excel over the range of distances involved (1 to 1 ¾ miles) in winning the Triple Crown
2003. Professor P G (Gerry) McKenna: Selected sample of scientific publications
2003: M B E Livingstone; P J Robson; A E Black; W A Coward; J M W Wallace; M C McKinley; J J Strain; P G McKennaAn evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of energy expenditure measured by heart rate and the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake: basal metabolic rate for identifying mis-reporting of energy intake by adults and children: a retrospective analysis.European journal of clinical nutrition 2003;57(3):455-63...
2003. Professor P G (Gerry) McKenna: Selected sample of scientific publications 2003: M B E Livingstone; P J Robson; A E Black; W A Coward; J M W Wallace; M C McKinley; J J Strain; P G McKennaAn evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of energy expenditure measured by heart rate and the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake: basal metabolic rate for identifying mis-reporting of energy intake by adults and children: a retrospective analysis.European journal of clinical nutrition 2003;57(3):455-63
2008. Coleraine Chronicle: Gerry Looks to the Future
Former vice-chancellor speaks for first time about his time at the university, the credit crunch, the future of post-primary selection and his belief that a united front will help place Coleraine at the forefront of any economic upturn   Gerry looks to the future The former vice-chancellor of the University of Ulster, Professor Gerry McKenna, claims he remains the university’s number one supporter, despite the acrimonious nature of his departure from the top job. Speaking publicly for the first time since relinquishing his post in 2005, the Tyrone native said he retained a lot of very happy memories from his 35 years association with the university and, in particular, the Coleraine campus...
2008. Coleraine Chronicle: Gerry Looks to the Future Former vice-chancellor speaks for first time about his time at the university, the credit crunch, the future of post-primary selection and his belief that a united front will help place Coleraine at the forefront of any economic upturn   Gerry looks to the future The former vice-chancellor of the University of Ulster, Professor Gerry McKenna, claims he remains the university’s number one supporter, despite the acrimonious nature of his departure from the top job. Speaking publicly for the first time since relinquishing his post in 2005, the Tyrone native said he retained a lot of very happy memories from his 35 years association with the university and, in particular, the Coleraine campus
2011. Radiography and the REF
RADIOGRAPHY: GUEST EDITORIAL Professor P G McKenna The development of radiography degree programmes in the late 1980s coincided with the introduction of the periodic assessment of research performance in UK universities. The first Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) took place in 1989, followed by similar exercises in 1992, 1996, 2001 and 2008...
2011. Radiography and the REF RADIOGRAPHY: GUEST EDITORIAL Professor P G McKenna The development of radiography degree programmes in the late 1980s coincided with the introduction of the periodic assessment of research performance in UK universities. The first Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) took place in 1989, followed by similar exercises in 1992, 1996, 2001 and 2008
2008. Higher Education, Research and Knowledge Transfer as Drivers of the Knowledge Economy in Northern Ireland
Professor Gerry McKenna Universities are also the main providers of research in Northern Ireland. Research and development in the private sector is still low relative to Great Britain and the Irish Republic...
2008. Higher Education, Research and Knowledge Transfer as Drivers of the Knowledge Economy in Northern Ireland Professor Gerry McKenna Universities are also the main providers of research in Northern Ireland. Research and development in the private sector is still low relative to Great Britain and the Irish Republic
2011. Biomedical Science - A Degree for All Seasons
Chas Chowdrey, David Holmes and Gerry McKenna There has been some recent confusion and uncertainty within the higher education sector and the Biomedical Scientists profession, concerning the proposed development of degree programmes in ‘healthcare science’ as an alternative to the integrated Biomedical Science (BMS) programmes for entry into the biomedical science profession. This has arisen through the various deliberations and pronouncements emanating from the Modernising Scientific Careers (MSC) project...
2011. Biomedical Science - A Degree for All Seasons Chas Chowdrey, David Holmes and Gerry McKenna There has been some recent confusion and uncertainty within the higher education sector and the Biomedical Scientists profession, concerning the proposed development of degree programmes in ‘healthcare science’ as an alternative to the integrated Biomedical Science (BMS) programmes for entry into the biomedical science profession. This has arisen through the various deliberations and pronouncements emanating from the Modernising Scientific Careers (MSC) project
2009. The Health of Research in the Northern Ireland Universities - Why It Matters
Professor Gerry McKenna The first half of 2009 has seen an upsurge in media coverage of research performance in Northern Ireland’s two universities. This has been generated mostly by the universities themselves and reported largely verbatim in the regional press...
2009. The Health of Research in the Northern Ireland Universities - Why It Matters Professor Gerry McKenna The first half of 2009 has seen an upsurge in media coverage of research performance in Northern Ireland’s two universities. This has been generated mostly by the universities themselves and reported largely verbatim in the regional press
2008. Springvale - The Fuller Story
Professor Gerry McKenna The controversial ´Springvale Educational Village Project´ involved, initially, the development of a University of Ulster (UU) campus in West/North Belfast and, later, a joint campus there with the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education (BIFHE). It has been the subject of much media attention,and some ill-informed and disingenuos comment both before and since the Report of the Northern Ireland Audit Office (NIAO) in November 2006 and the subsequent report of the Assembly Public Accounts Committee...
2008. Springvale - The Fuller Story Professor Gerry McKenna The controversial ´Springvale Educational Village Project´ involved, initially, the development of a University of Ulster (UU) campus in West/North Belfast and, later, a joint campus there with the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education (BIFHE). It has been the subject of much media attention,and some ill-informed and disingenuos comment both before and since the Report of the Northern Ireland Audit Office (NIAO) in November 2006 and the subsequent report of the Assembly Public Accounts Committee
2010. Why the Best Higher Education Option for Derry is a Strong Unitary University of Ulster
Professor Gerry McKenna The recent heightened level of interest in, and demand for, increased higher education provision in Derry including proposals by the U4D lobby for a ‘University for Derry’, is a natural reaction of a community that feels hard done by in many ways. This includes the understandable reaction to the announcement by the University of Ulster (UU) in 2009 that it plans to invest over £250 million in transferring most of its activities from the highly successful Jordanstown campus to the Cathedral Quarter in Belfast...
2010. Why the Best Higher Education Option for Derry is a Strong Unitary University of Ulster Professor Gerry McKenna The recent heightened level of interest in, and demand for, increased higher education provision in Derry including proposals by the U4D lobby for a ‘University for Derry’, is a natural reaction of a community that feels hard done by in many ways. This includes the understandable reaction to the announcement by the University of Ulster (UU) in 2009 that it plans to invest over £250 million in transferring most of its activities from the highly successful Jordanstown campus to the Cathedral Quarter in Belfast
2009. North Carolina - A Model for Northern Ireland?
North Carolina - a Model for Northern Ireland?Gerry McKenna and Martin Lancaster As Northern Ireland continues the transition to peace and, hopefully, prosperity after nearly 40 years of civil strife, it is worth reflecting on lessons which might be learned from elsewhere. One region where economic and educational developments since the 1960s bear close scrutiny is North Carolina...
2009. North Carolina - A Model for Northern Ireland? North Carolina - a Model for Northern Ireland?Gerry McKenna and Martin Lancaster As Northern Ireland continues the transition to peace and, hopefully, prosperity after nearly 40 years of civil strife, it is worth reflecting on lessons which might be learned from elsewhere. One region where economic and educational developments since the 1960s bear close scrutiny is North Carolina
2007. GLOBALISATION - The Education Challenge
Professor Gerry McKenna As economies become increasingly knowledge-based, relying on intellectual power, creativity and entrepreneurship, governments throughout the world including the developing world, particularly China and India, have recognised the crucial importance of promoting education at all levels in ensuring and maintaining competitiveness in a global marketplace, driven largely by Darwinian principles. Without wealth creation the other paramount values of a civilised society, including social cohesion and cultural development, cannot be sustained...
2007. GLOBALISATION - The Education Challenge Professor Gerry McKenna As economies become increasingly knowledge-based, relying on intellectual power, creativity and entrepreneurship, governments throughout the world including the developing world, particularly China and India, have recognised the crucial importance of promoting education at all levels in ensuring and maintaining competitiveness in a global marketplace, driven largely by Darwinian principles. Without wealth creation the other paramount values of a civilised society, including social cohesion and cultural development, cannot be sustained
2009. University of Ulster Belfast Development; University Autonomy, How Far Should It Go?
Professor Gerry McKenna The recent announcement by the University of Ulster of an investment of some £250 million to expand its activities in Belfast’s Cathedral Quarter must have felt to many like a glow of warm light on an otherwise dark and dismal economic landscape. Here, at a stroke, a publically funded university was pumping huge sums into the local economy with the beleaguered building and property sector being the main beneficiary...
2009. University of Ulster Belfast Development; University Autonomy, How Far Should It Go? Professor Gerry McKenna The recent announcement by the University of Ulster of an investment of some £250 million to expand its activities in Belfast’s Cathedral Quarter must have felt to many like a glow of warm light on an otherwise dark and dismal economic landscape. Here, at a stroke, a publically funded university was pumping huge sums into the local economy with the beleaguered building and property sector being the main beneficiary
2011. Obituary: Professor Jim Allen
Professor Jim Allen will be remembered, formally, and fondly, as a highly successful Provost of the University of Ulster (UU)’s Magee campus at Londonderry, and a dedicated Pro Vice Chancellor who was the primary driver of the Sports Institute for Northern Ireland  (SINI) at its Jordanstown campus. Informally, he will be remembered as a wonderful colleague, inspirational teacher, and friend who stayed true to his core academic values...
2011. Obituary: Professor Jim Allen Professor Jim Allen will be remembered, formally, and fondly, as a highly successful Provost of the University of Ulster (UU)’s Magee campus at Londonderry, and a dedicated Pro Vice Chancellor who was the primary driver of the Sports Institute for Northern Ireland  (SINI) at its Jordanstown campus. Informally, he will be remembered as a wonderful colleague, inspirational teacher, and friend who stayed true to his core academic values
2010. University Tuition Fees - The Choices Facing Northern Ireland
Professor Gerry McKenna There has been much comment recently on the complex issue of university funding and student tuition fees. Some of the comments have been balanced, realistic and fair; others have been alarmist, and sometimes disingenuous...
2010. University Tuition Fees - The Choices Facing Northern Ireland Professor Gerry McKenna There has been much comment recently on the complex issue of university funding and student tuition fees. Some of the comments have been balanced, realistic and fair; others have been alarmist, and sometimes disingenuous
2011. The need to develop an affordable higher education system in Northern Ireland
Professor Gerry McKenna The decision by the Northern Ireland Executive to keep university fees at current levels has been remarkably uncontentious. Yet the agreed ‘solution’, that the funding shortfall to the local universities should be met by funding transfers from within the Department for Employment and Learning’s budget and from other departments, is unsustainable...
2011. The need to develop an affordable higher education system in Northern Ireland Professor Gerry McKenna The decision by the Northern Ireland Executive to keep university fees at current levels has been remarkably uncontentious. Yet the agreed ‘solution’, that the funding shortfall to the local universities should be met by funding transfers from within the Department for Employment and Learning’s budget and from other departments, is unsustainable
2011. Institutional Failures - the Sins of Omission
Professor Gerry McKenna We have seen in recent times a spate of corporate failures involving corrupt and morally indefensible behaviour by previously respected individuals and institutions. This includes politicians, bankers, developers, the police and the church...
2011. Institutional Failures - the Sins of Omission Professor Gerry McKenna We have seen in recent times a spate of corporate failures involving corrupt and morally indefensible behaviour by previously respected individuals and institutions. This includes politicians, bankers, developers, the police and the church